American Party System:
The political party’s existence is essential in any political system. What is the importance of political parties in all democratic or undemocratic systems? Democracy and group system are related in relation to each other.
Especially in relation to liberal democracy, this relationship is inaccessible. US political system is a symbol of liberal democracy. For the normal reason, the existence of political parties in the United States is inevitable for theoretical judgment. But the lack of political party in the garrison was one of the features of the US political system.
The writers of the United States Constitution considered the emergence of the political party system as unpredictable and inadequate. Constitutional Organizations Philadelphia Party Committee All talk related matters were consciously boycotted.
That’s why no political party in the US Constitution. | Not to mention. Nevertheless, later the party system developed in economic, political and social welfare. But the party system was not included in the constitutional framework.
Party system is a result of constitutional customs and real losers. In the essential framework, the US political system has been included. The United States does not exist in the United States except politics, politics. Except there is no democracy, there is no politics except political parties and there is no political party except apace and mediocrity. Markin said the US political parties as a surprising event.
The origins and evolution of the party system in the US
Though there is no mention of the political party in the Mason Constitution, from 1787 onward, the political party. The organizers of the constitution were consciously asserted by the party system and the party government at Glassful FIA conference. At the end of his tenure, the party farewell speech
He mentioned the subject. The makers thought that it would be possible to perform the election of presidential members without a political party. James Madison and many other politicians thought the emergence of political parties inevitable.
And in the midst of civilized nations, BV interest arises due to land, industrial, trade, and other economic issues. Due to different opinions and feelings, they are divided into different categories. Modern legislation: Regarding the main duties of the system, controlling such different and rival interests.
Due to controversy in the determination of the indirect policy, George Washington gave Thomas Jefferson’s immunity to Alexander Hamilton.
Jefferson’s team began to try to reconcile all forms of political opinion. But it was not possible for the party to fulfill economic, social and political interests.
In the 19th century, the Republican Party consolidated two mutually-defunct groups called Democratic-Republican and National Republican. Later, the Democratic-Republican cycle was known as the democratic and national-republican cycle Hugh team. Huh’s team is also known as the Republican Party.
Democritus evicted slavery in the middle of the nineteenth century. The rivalry between the Republican Party is intense. The two political parties have changed their supporters. Democrat team owners of the wealthy landmass of the South and industrialist of the Republican Northern Region
Turns into the interests of traders. Based on slavery, the south economy was developed. Because there was a need for adequate slave-labor for the free progress of agriculture in South Kishi Pradhan South.
So the devious team started to resort to slave business owners and to promote separatism. On the contrary, the Republican descent was seeking to provide labor for the labor force to expand the industry. That is why the party was favoring the abolition of slavery.
The Ward Committee in the city area is located on the pressing committee. City councilors are elected from wards and they are especially involved in municipal politics. The City Committee oversees the activities of the Ward Committee and the Prisoning Committee.
Urban and rural committees keep a close watch on the problems of the people of rural and urban areas. There are also many District Committees and their location in different areas and areas. The County Central Committees coordinate the activities of its subordinate organizations.
The Central Committee of the State is on top of the county’s central committees. Responsible for taking care of party activities within the state.
For the positions of the state central committees in the states, for the senators, for Congress members. Party campaign. There are also separate campaign committees of the Congress and the Senate.
The National President stayed at the top of the permanent party organization and he became the representative of the National Committee.
After every four years at the end of the presidential and vice-president’s approval, the national has been nominated. In reality, the person nominated as the President is the national president of the party and the national committee only concedes it.
Temporary party organizations and permanent party organizations in the United States, as well as some temporary organizations.
These temporary organizations consist of party primary and convention. They meet at least once or twice a year and decide on the important questions about the team.
In the past, the Caucus party leaders played an important role in the Managing Director for the post of candidates in the United States. Caucus means that informal meetings of the party leaders are held where leaders take a decision together on the candidate’s decision. In the evolution of time
In the United States, the United States is a minister of a democracy, a political party. The two teams compete for the same level of power. The ministers are half of the group and the Democrats are the second.
Democrats have more influence in Kosi region of south and central west. There is no reasonable reason that Republicans and Democrats, respectively, are both the holders and carriers of the same class of interest in the interests of the workers and peasants. So their thinking, ideas, cannot be noticed.
The United States called the party system four groups. According to him, the President’s democratic party in the collapse of four national teams.
Congress Party’s Democratic Party, the Presidential Party, and the Congress Party’s General Assembly. The Presidential Party was formed in the center of the President and congressional Congress.
Regionalism 4 From the regionalism, two groups have chosen geographical boundaries of their own dominance, due to a significant feature of the American system.
The demacritated group was largely regarded as the political party of the north and west of the South and the Republican parties. This regionalism is known as the Communist State of America. Before 1932, this regionalism was at such a stage that there was no existence of Republicans and Democrats in the north.
Prior to that time, only a single party in the United States had existed and there was no alternative to the Bhatdata. Changes to this system after 1932 Roosevelt gained so much support in the presidential election that year in the north and the west that the Democratic team is a low profile.
The demacatrade team has become a national party by eliminating regionalism. From 1924 to 1951, the Democrat team was able to predict the amount of its past in the northern part of the Republican stronghold of the Republican region.
On the other hand, the Republican Party’s number of VatAs increased six times in that time in the Southern part. In 1924, the number of the two Republican party’s seats was 70,000, and in 1960 the number of Vats received in the south reached 4.8 million. This change of allegiance of Bhatdatad resulted in a new national political environment and both parties improved the level of retribution.
There was a widespread transformation of Democratic and Republican elections and general politics that centered on the regional basis. No party now controls the country’s northern and southern regions alone.
Every group Support base has changed. The production process of different parts of the country has turned into a capitalist production system. Democratic and Republican parties are to influence politics on a national basis rather than regionalism.
Decentralized party system and the United States party system decentralized The party system is called. Democratic parties and Republican parties are mainly regional and state parties.
Every four During the presidential election of the year, they became national parties for a few months. At the same time every four years, the same group of people in the same state, joining the same nominal party members of the other 50 states, are the candidates for the post of President.
Be determined to be nominated and elected to him. The party convention that is called for the party’s candidate for the post of president is called the Convention of fifty states.
After the Convention ended, they returned to their home country with the notion that their power conditions Partially or absolutely not dependent on presidential elections.
It is unthinkable for a national leader of two parties to nominate candidates and policies of the state. Each party has a system to support its own state. It is possible to maintain national leaders without the intention. Each state team is self-reliant and independent in managing its own organization.
In the case of carrying out, there are close of various vestibule villages. The debate in the Legislative Assembly by providing information and statistics on various issues to the members of the Congress of various vested quarter members.
Helps in participating. The Senate and the members of the delegation spoke in favor of the vested interests in their respective rooms and committees.
Alan Potter has mentioned, in fact, the members of the Congress have voluntarily become the dues of various organized vested interests in their support.
High-middle class members of the Congress with narrow-mindedness He is sympathetic to the regional interests and organized self-respecting dignitaries. In short, the members of the Congress The lobbyists played the role.
The lack of certain political ideology has led many advocates of the American political system to consider the lack of political party’s loyalty to certain political ideologies as a key element of the US-party system.
Empiricists in the field of operation. In reality, each team is specifically an individualist system. Individualism Political expression of capitalism Car, Bernstein and Murphy have mentioned that one of the main features of the US system is the difference.
The difference between the ideology of the main two parties and general program. Political parties do not present any alternate program to the bayat donors in the elections.
Offers alternate candidates. There are differences in representation between the two main groups presenting the Metadata, there is no difference in political philosophy.
The two parties are unanimous in relation to the liberal democratic system, the personal initiative and the inhibition of socialism. Both parties demand the support of all social classes and regions. Both parties believe in the same principle on international questions.
The confidence of the main parties, the lack of class awareness, the politics of the Constitution and the constitution-recognized target and method. Makin is mentioned as the reason for ideological defiance of the self-indulging indifference of the people.
There is no difference between ideological differences between the democratic and the general body. Alley McKin described the two-party system as ‘a dim bi-party system’. Although there is no impression on the number of boats in Betul, there are two bases empty.
Non-party selectors and candidates:
Referring to the number of independent candidates and non-partisan voters in the United States. It is not seen in any other party system. Two United States political parties distribute official favor and jobs among the supporters after taking power.
As a result, ideological party loyalty is not seen among the supporters. Besides, there is no ideological difference between the political parties. This is also why permanent loyalty does not develop among the supporters. If a selector supports the opposition, the selector is seen supporting the democratic party in the next election.
Finally, it is said that the combination of the aforementioned features of the United States bilateral system is one of the most unique in the world. This uniqueness has differentiated the system from other countries.
The nature of this group system is such that it is not always possible to understand in a straight line. D. W. Brogan (D.w. Brogan) said that the United States team system is always a secret to a foreign observer.
Reasons for the existence of a two-party system in the US
The concept of US politics revolves around the principle of the two-party system. Democracy and the United States party in the United States.
Election politics and the challenge of achieving government power. The US political system is one of the two-party systems. Unfortunate example There are no other teams in the US. Many times the strongest group has emerged.
Political parties such as the Socialist Labor Party, Communist Party etc. exist. The liberal party, the labor party and the conservative party currently maintain some energy in New York.
However, other groups except two major parties have been formed on a regional basis. They could not have special influence in national politics and elections.
Instead of the party system as a question of dilemma and multi-party in Switzerland
Instead, there has been a bilateral arrangement developed in the United States, that the two-party system has been strengthened due to lack of foreign diplomacy in the US regime.
But why have so many happenings, in the US regime, many foreign observers have multi-party systems in Iceland? Even in Britain and Canada, at some places in the trillions of this century,
The reason for encouraging the two-party system is to emphasize the importance of giving three.
Historical reasons and, according to them, the colonists brought 1 died of the two-party system in the United States. At the time of the adoption of the constitution after Independence, the US leaders, Federalists, and Anti.
The list was divided into two categories: The political application of these two gestures was different from the social center? The appeal of the Federalists to the business class and the application of their detainees was to the farmers, the owner of a small property and to the growing workers of the city. These two types of political application and loyalty are still effective.
As an institutional reason, it can be said that no one in the presidential election It is necessary for the candidate to get the support of the majority of the electorate to be elected. If the number of teams is greater, then no party.
It is not possible for the candidate to win by a single effort. One representative from every election district in the election of Congress May be elected to the representative. This resulted in the victory of a political party candidate. The party’s candidate won the party’s influence and prestige.
According to many, in the society, geographical, social, economic, | On the basis of ethnic, religious tendency, there are many groups formed in the public.
There is a lot more to develop the system. The possibility of political dissent is very low in this situation. Due to tolerance, access and facilitating delivery, the two-party system provides a favorable environment. Relatively less class consciousness in the United States.
Although there exists the existence of class consciousness and the social, economic, ethnic, geographical and religious sections on a religious basis. Goes.
Though the application of two main parties and adherence to a particular gallery, they also try to get support from other galleries.
Like the Clinton Resister, and the Clinton Researcher mentioned some factors in the United States about the emergence and development of the two-party system.
(1) Socialist causes
(Ii) constitutional wear
(3) psychological causes
Socialist causes the United States society is flexible and in the social system, there is economic flexibility and the principle of unity among the people.
As a result, the third political party has been created. Moreover, the writer thinks that there is no demand for radical reform in the American society. So the desire for reform is not felt by the desire of the third political party.
According to constitutional reasons and the creation of bipartisan in US politics, the CC has mentioned some of the constitutional issues. Among all the constitutional reasons, there is a mention of the system of election of representatives from every election district, the position of the President and the election process, division of power between the central government, election-related legislation.
Publicity system, and its expenditure, the legal status of main political parties etc. For these reasons, the creation of political parties or the movement of a national party is interrupted
According to the psychological reason and Clinton’s opinion, if there is only one option to choose between two options, then the development of two political parties is normal. In the case of the receiver, Maurice has supported Asperger’s views and the conclusion was reached.
Richard Watson and Michael Fitzgerald mention four reasons for developing bilateral arrangements in the United States.
(1) historical material.
(3) Election Rules and
(4) The usual tendency of preserving the two-party system
Historical material is one of the reasons for the emergence of a two-party system. At the time of compilation of the constitution, the representatives of producers, traders, shipwrecks, and producers of agricultural products are divided into federalist gaisthey and shed peasants, federalists, who guard the interests of artisans.
Subsequently, They become the Federalist and the Republican Party. The Republican Party in the North and the Democratic Party established dominance in the south.
A broad agreement on social goals and the implementation process has strengthened the two-party system. This agreement has been widely observed in various fields including political, economic, social and cultural.
Election rules strengthen the two-party system. Any person who is nominated for the post of president will have to get the majority of the electorate to be elected. That’s why the team in the whole country. Lack of popularity and support.
The election area is one-member in the congressional elections. So it is possible that the party that gets the support of the majority electorate can win it. Generally, only on behalf of an organized party.
In the American society, for a long time, the dominance of the two groups has resulted in the introduction of citizens from the beginning to one of the groups.
Develop support counseling. Political leadership is limited to two groups. Each leader thinks that it can not be won without a symbol of one of their two main parties. By stopping the political barriers in two ways.
The two-party system has achieved stability. A party is in power, the other is powerless. Citizens support any one group. The two-party system is normal and inevitable and only true genre American political struggle.
The lack of sustainability of the prospective third party has established the two-party system in the US political system. Like this Groups with limited power are usually organized on special events, issues, or claims. Concerned issue or claim. If not long-term, then such third parties have to change their primary ideology or program.
There have been many opinions about the reasons for the formation of the two-party system in the United States. In the United States, the two-party system has achieved stability. According to him, the United States vatadatagana will pay according to the past regional commitment.
The Democratic Party of the South of Bhandara and the Northern Vatadatars have the tendency to pay for Republicans aft. Many more like the financier have given importance to the method of selection. Perkin America’s Vatadatagun does not elect the President only, they are elected by the Senate and the members of the delegation.
And the members of the delegation are elected on the basis of single representation of each electoral district. As a result of the selection process, the main two teams are able to nominate themselves.
It is believed that the participation of one representative from each electoral district and the participation of the Vatadatra in the presidential election helped to unite with the separation of the geographical and economic diversities of various states.
Apart from the above-mentioned discussion about the absence of a two-party system or the absence of a third political party in the United States political system, there are some reasons. The reasons are as follows:
The movement of the middle-class leadership and the third political party in the US political system has emerged every once in a row, and the start of the third party has been observed.
But the leadership of this national effort or movement has always been entrusted to the middle class. Abnormal psychology of this class hindered the origins of the third party.
The possibility of a third party. Was developed with But in 1896, the party gave up its independence in the presidential election, and this led to the suppression of the possibility of the coup of the third party. |
The lack of solidarity among the third parties and the lack of consolidation of the third-party limited force strengthened the bipartisan system in the United States. Long-time movement related to the Third Party’s coup disappointingly disintegrate from all aspects such as nature, program, purpose, leadership, etc.
The movement organized by people of different classes and interests Could not contain the consolidated form. The conflict between the interests of different classes has weakened the movement.
Moreover, the leadership of the middle-class class is a major factor in the unrest of the movement. Many times promises a few good privileges. In view of the movement has been withdrawn.
The leaders of the two major political parties and the leaders of the two major political parties are the third. Get ready for the detention of the party.
A mass protest or independent development centered around a particular claim or problem In order to counter the political movement, these leaders arrange a syllabus and thus, the movements of the movement. Make arrangements for completion. Otherwise, adverse measures were taken against the movement on the planned path.
The dissonance and weakness of the working people and dissonance among the working people of the US and the lack of their capacities of power make the coup of a socialist or communist movement impossible.
The US United States Trade Union leaders are more interested in gaining the benefits of the two parties. The movement of the working people here is limited to the purpose of achieving economic well-being. Left-wing movement of workers-peasants in the United States was not organized.