Definition of Decision:
- 1 Definition of Decision:
- 2 The features are as follows:
- 3 Nature of Decision:
- 4 Elements influencing decisions:
- 5 Unexpected Results:
- 6 Activity research method:
- 7 Decision Making Process or Steps:
- 8 Innovative alternative:
- 9 Classification of Data:
- 10 Importance of time:
- 11 Simon’s logical decision model:
- 12 Rational decision stages:
- 13 Logical decision process:
- 14 Behavior option model:
- 15 Limited logical model:
- 16 Problems for decision making:
- 17 Can be possible:
It is very important for people to decide on people’s decisions and decision-making, and to take a bigger role in the social, political and state affairs of the people than on the broader issues. The highest level of the state or organization is decided on the subject, on which an organization, organization or one
Maybe blue. Depending on the compatibility, superiority, and skill of the decision = fate. As a result, there are few and more important issues like decision-making. The neutral process has become a topic of study for sociologists. National or nationally
After ethnicity, especially after World War II, the human community of the world. Su is giving too much importance to Su Because during the postwar period, with the increasing complexity of every aspect of social life, it is becoming more and more felt to get the right and right decision decisions.
Decisions are taken by the administrators as well as the responsibilities and duties of the administrators. As a matter of daily work, he has to decide the best decision among the many complex and difficult issues and circumstances.
And the first step of any plan is to decide. Therefore, keeping in view all these aspects, it is essential that the administrator possesses many qualities, qualifications, experience, and knowledge of personalities. Because, depending on the way in which it is done at a particular time, he has to rely on his decision for the result.
Increasing the importance of decision making and decision-making, there is no end to the thinking of sociologists, administrative scientists, and political scientists and thinkers. They have tried to provide different definitions of the decision. She About to be considered below:
General definition and, in general, the decision to set up a plan. The decision and the authority to decide which decision he decides to make or decide on any issue is the decision.
Deciding process is the process of choosing the best option from among the options available for achieving a goal. The chosen option is decided. The recipient chooses to verify the four alternatives and after analyzing each side’s reaction.
Definitions and definitions of documentary and decision-making have given the definitions of both the writers and the people, and in some of them, there are a few important definitions below that management is a decision-making method.
It involves choosing the knowledge of one or more behaviors between the behavior of two or more groups in order to make decisions.
To define the acceptance of the sentence, it is said to be a process or sequence of work that is related to problem identification, a collection of information and definition of options, and these three With the desired level of magnitude. Selecting one of the many options with consent will maximize the goal of the decision-maker or provide maximum satisfaction.
A social process that determines a decision for decision and gives birth to some options, these options are chosen to implement a specific option.
So the decision is a process, in which the interest in the context of a certain condition. The best option is selected for implementation.
The decision is in line with the means of achieving it. On the other hand, there can be both types of motivations in the present or the way and the decisions of the 4 decisions.
When the purpose of the decision is made, the decision that the administrator has to make is to decide the purpose of decision-making, if both of them have to decide on the basis of current and future events, to determine the purpose.
The features are as follows:
The decision is the completion process. The sharp judicial lair for decision-making. Choosing the best one is possible among possible solutions.
The objective can be achieved and the objective can be deterministic or both. The only answer to complex questions is to mind. The decision of the end of one subject is decided through decision-making, the beginning of progress on a particular path. Progress Before Decision
Immediately after the decision of the dull and reactionary forces, and the uncertain fate, the progress has progressed beyond brightening future beyond all adversity in the life of its own individual.
Nature of Decision:
Choose or sort out decision-making. Choosing one of the many alternative solutions to overcome the opposing forces. If you do not have a choice, then the question of decision making becomes irrelevant.
The goal of the organization is achieved more successfully, the main purpose of decision making. Before taking the decision, the administrator has to think deeply with the thought and discretion.
Though the decision was made for decision-making, many of his accessories work Not a conscious thought crop, they are spontaneous and their process remains unknown to the administrator.
As already mentioned, there may be a lot of problems. Among them. The decision to opt for the best. One of the many possible solutions to determine which goals will be most favorable for achieving goals is pure thinking and sharp judgment. Must be. In fact, the ability to invent alternative solutions to adopt the best practices.
The special significance of SOC. Of course, there is no alternative way to decide. 7 Very easy to do. Moreover, the decision to refrain from doing anything is also decided.
Indicates the difference between personal formulation. Institutional decisions can be delegated to the other, personal decisions cannot be delegated to others.
The decision-making process is basic and general. The basic decision is one and unique, and it is also long-term. And the general routine decision-making ranges extremely short and variable.
According to him, decision making schedules and may be uncompromising. The first is according to the experience. Is accepted or made; The second is accepted or made in the context of sudden problems.
Elements influencing decisions:
Two types of components influence decision-making. Negative elements in these halves. And positive elements. These are described below.
Negative elements and lack of information and insufficiency, objective elements, unexpected results, submerged pricing problems, extreme hygiene of routine work, timely solutions to problems.
Influenced decision-making. Failure in innovation, the problem of choosing the right decision from alternative actions, ignorance, bias
Objective elements and real cases can be seen that administrators are special in decision-making. Without a thought, you have reached a conclusion. In this context, a businessman commented. I have thought that, as long as I have thought,
Only then was my money spent. Surveys about the formulation have proved that they do not know how the decision has been taken. In this case, decisions are often made on assumptions.
Personal opinion and personal opinion in decision-making have a special effect on choice or dislike. If there is a contradictory information on a subject or has preferred or accepted many options.
The submerged price refers to past costs and being. It has been lost and can not be restored. This is irrelevant for permanent costs and future decisions for the submerged cost. If an administrator decides at any time
If you spend money on construction work, then hand to any other work. In short, he will not be able to spend the money he wants to restore the money completely by wearing a sash.
In this case, the idea of the previous investment is to be taken so that the current decision should be taken. If not, in the future, for a long time, if a person has to choose a career-oriented life to make a decision.
Special knowledge has to be acquired through time and suddenly after learning this, Choosing ear she is not possible. Here, the change in his profession is very high. It is not possible for him to withdraw sufficient money, energy, and money to study this much, and it can not be done anywhere. For example, to convert UbuGari Factory into a cream making factory overnight.
According to Marton, the implementation of some of the prize money is the result of the donor. It does not seem like a lot of time when you get or earn something.
According to some people, it is like marrying. Divorce with marriage. Noro is growing If the decision for which the decision was taken is not achieved or the result If not satisfactory, then he can not be called a reasonable decision.
It is found that more and more busyness and research in government and business establishments have shown that if an administrator spends more time on daily routine work, he will postpone making long-term decisions.
Because he can not give the amount of control he deserves. Professor Marquez studied for two years at Kaniz Technological Institute in America and concluded that the executives.
Despite having clear instructions for spending one-third of their time in routine work, they have spent more time and have kept the time for making decisions about planning or important matters. But due to the increased work pressure, they actually have to spend any time in the plan
Failure to invent solutions and a royal reception at the same time is a lot of variety. The task is to perform. For example Letter to the opposition working for another organization. Writing, making a budget for self-department, punitive action against the subordinate employee and
Prepare for a meeting or a meeting on an emergency basis at the spiritual level. As a result, he is unable to give time to the time of the decision. In addition, he decided to take the decision. The decision to make a decision between them goes far beyond a lot of mistrust and timely correct decisions.
There is no reason to think that the decision-making and decision-making decisions can be chosen only if they are systematically mature.
For better decisions and deliberations, delays are needed for decision-making. Public interest, constitutional red Neglect is also to see whether the decisions are consistent with the price.
Advocacy in governance and governance in the administration is the way to take concrete decisions. Treatment means; Participant may be either conscious or unidentified, private or institutional.
In the administration, bias is defined as whether there has been any consistency with the departmental customs, rules, customs and so on. These are consistent with each other.
The decision is very easy for the administration. But there will be problems in building the parliamentary decision of one another. For example, ignoring the established rules will lead to arbitrariness.
Again, if the rules are rigid, the laxity or red-fiat will be established. In this case, the two parties have a deterrent for making a sound decision.
Therefore, the big problem for the administration is to create an understanding between conflicting interests and mind-boggling. This is the main problem in decision-making.
Positive or helpful effect factors for taking positive elements and decisions.
- Simple planning method.
- Arrangement for uncertainty and distress.
- Organizational targets in Kathmandu
- Zygazyag system.
- The decision was taken in the field of active research.
- Revision and analysis of the incident.
- The importance of mass mobilization.
- Importance of morality and
- Economic capability.
One way to adopt simple planning methods and simple planning methods is to follow the prescribed standards of scale.
Administrators measure some work on a predetermined basis. And they accept it as a purity. How much of a decision can a householder take on an hourly determination based on the prescribed standards, and what kind of decisions can be taken?
To make a clear impression about how many leaks can be managed. You can Such methods are very important in the military. There is a system of rules set for each job in the military and in every way it is supervised.
If planning and arrangement for uncertainty and adversity, then there is a need to think about what the future may cost, and many times.
That is, the current plan goes down in failure for invisible events. An administrator will prepare plans from the possible situation and future perspective in such a way that the planning framework can take effective measures to overcome any future danger.
What they have to do in a particular or specific case. The organization always wants its members to understand that the purpose of the organization should be for the purpose.
Therefore, the purpose of the organization should be taken. So, in such a case, Malavadesh only prepares the moral grounds for making personal decisions. The obstacle plays a conscience and manages the behavior of a person.
And in order to increase the rationality, an organizational system, in one frame, assigns its work and responsibility according to the validity of each individual and individual. So that
The decision is taken at the appropriate level. However, the organizational process that increases the right to decide from the appropriate stage.
There is a new reception center. All the news was collected at the center and later in different places. Is not sent. Some organizations have arrangements for applying internal activities. The possibility of collective behavior or decision becomes more bright. This method is known as a cybernetic or generally system analysis methods.
Activity research method:
It is very effective in determining some problems. Due to the prominent aspects of action research, problems arise through mathematical formulas, resulting in results.
Assuming the amount of material and the results evaluated. The use of an action research methodology to make the electronic computer possible in determining higher complex problems.
The process of reviewing and analyzing the incident and verifying a decision is to appoint a person to review the errors of a proposed task. His job will be to gather information against the proposal.
A decision can be challenged due to the reasoning and pricing of events. A variety of questions and objections to the decision. But, when such an apology or objection acknowledges the decision, it is a fair decision.
As much as possible the explanation of the outcome of a decision will be interpreted, the decision will be considered according to the principles of wisdom and reality.
Because of the importance of public awareness and the administration and its policy decisions for the welfare of the people, it is absolutely necessary to follow suit in the context of decision-making or, in the context of price rise, from the outside.
Therefore, in order to make any administrative organization decision, it is necessary to be respectful of public money. However, administrative agencies will have to create favorable prices or public support through extensive campaigning.
The importance of ethics and the importance of material ethics influencing the process of decision making is very much In many cases politicians are given the importance of politician decision-making.
In these cases, scientific reasoning or commercial selfish. To ignore. So in such a situation, scientific reasoning cannot create a decision making process. Moral price plays a major role in these areas.
Economic capability and the present era have been centered around the economy. Who is without money, nothing is possible. So, in deciding the economic aspect, the economic aspect is the most serious rotten.
Because it is not possible to implement decisions without funding. To make decisions, evaluate the proportion of BV’s policies, costs, and benefits. Effective at a lower cost.
In the end, it is possible that every organization and administration should formulate a policy and that is unacceptable. Accepting and implementing it is very important and essential.
It is important and essential to make decisions in this regard. In this case, there is a need to make negative effects at different levels of decision-making.
Besides, an administrator or authority must recognize his skill by coordinating different complex elements of decision-making. The success of the organization or the administration is dependent on the correct conviction,
Decision Making Process or Steps:
There is no specific procedure for decision-making. However, there are some specific ways in which this decision helps. Some of the most desirable decisions have been made recently. The steps were taken. He has been mentioned below in the desirable steps.
The decision to diagnose and fix problems The first and main role of acceptance is to play. The decision-maker should solve the problem in a fair and fairway and in a specific way.
If the decision is wrong and inaccurate, then it will not only be wasted time, but the energy and money will be wasted and only then the inconsistencies and unpleasant problems of the organization will arise. So the head of an administrator or manager. The job is to determine the accuracy of any subject or problem and to find out more and increasing search.
Analyzing the problem and giving a fair and accurate analysis of the problem on the issue, the manager will provide the structure and problem insights to the problem. Enough have to do. Problems analyzing the problem of background, information, and ways to find out the problem.
An analysis of a problem will never be completely satisfactory, as long as some alternative innovations and steps will not be taken to investigate. It will be possible to make decisions in the absence of an alternative.
No An alternative to the search manager helps the problem to point out the problem from various perspectives and, finally, the gaps in the problem.
Considering that there is less risk of less important things than making a difference between a perfect alternative. She admits, “Search efforts for Siddha Strategy with administrative functions
Understand the support of the voicemail. On this occasion, to be able to take some basic steps in choosing from among some of the alternatives, open liaison needs to be open to the manager.
Experience of B, Experience, Analysis, and Proposals, and finally the manager needs to be cooperative. Robert Hilzenhorn points out that in order to choose between alternatives, he needs to choose the pulse and star of each option, which can be achieved. Looks like a shelf.
- Considering the amount of profit to be taken from any work;
- Coordinating between the thrift of a work and its immediate results;
- Schedule for any work to keep pace with the situation;
- Look at how to achieve more results through finite resources.
Appraisal of alternative mechanisms: It is essential to evaluate alternate mechanisms in the second phase of decision-making. Because at this stage an alternative system has to be developed which maximizes the benefits.
Converting decisions into action: that No matter what decision is taken, he must be consistent with reality. Many times it is seen that the most accurate decision has come to the failure of the employees’ lack of self-sufficiency or lack of commitment.
(1) safeguarding zigzag in decisions;
(Ii) Employee decision. Guarantee the operation;
(3) Take timely decisions.
While careful scrutiny of decisions and acceptance of C is taken very carefully, however, naturally it is seen which time the manager makes a serious mistake in making the decision.
Some of these foul misconceived decisions. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, there should be an arrangement, so that the decision can easily be altered by making appropriate changes.
Classification of Data:
No decision is taken on zero. So, to make a decision, it is necessary to insert some of the facts. But it is not enough to justify inconsistencies or databases, but they must be consistent.
Importance of time:
The time of decision making is much more important. Therefore, it is necessary to have a knowledge about when to accept it or to have a good knowledge of it. Chester Eye Bernard (C. I. Barnard) said that the decision.
It is necessary to emphasize on five topics in the case of acceptance. Many times, unforeseen or unspecified decisions result in serious disasters. So every manager is right. It is essential to have the knowledge of making the right decisions at the time.
At any stage, the goal of the organization is very important. The goal is to solve this goal, implement solutions, implement actions and control. Model at Decision-making decisions was taken at different stages of the decision-making process.
First, the goal of the organization or Decisions has to be taken in determining this. Second, to achieve the goal of the organization. Decisions have to be made about taxation.
Thirdly, the decision is also made in identifying the problem. Decision-making is also a case for decision making. Fifth, the decision. Once it is lost, the decision has to be taken for its assessment and evaluation.
The result of the management research conducted in Britain for resolving the war-related issues during the Great War. According to the 10th model, there are seven steps or steps in the decision-making process. Here are the alternatives to:
Whatever decision has been taken, it is accepted in the framework of the organization and any decision is taken in conformity with the goals or objectives of the organization.
But it is not enough to explain the goals of an organization or organization, to achieve that goal, it must also determine the performance standards or achievement criteria. Similar decisions were taken in conformity with the performance standards.
Problem identification is a problem that can be resolved by solving the third phase. The problem has caused a reaction: the level of the reaction.
The benefits that can be avoided, how much and how much the cost will be avoided, the cost that will be spent to solve the problem is not less than the benefit, the correct answer is correct and the basis of their assessment Identification is possible.
To resolve the problem at the level, find out all possible solution options for resolving the problem. There are several things to look at at this stage:
The decision will be taken after considering all aspects. It is desirable to take decisions based on the amount of data collected at this stage.
Once the decision is taken, it is evaluated in the context of the existing situation. Sixth, implementation after evaluation, and in terms of limited circumstances in the implementation phase, o One of the most important steps in the decision-making process is to reduce the decision.
Seventh, the final stage of the decision-making process is to take part in the decision-making process in relation to the decision-making process and the decisions taken by the decision-making process, by converting it to the decision-maker, whether it is working in the implementation phase.
No decision has taken 9 political activities of the decision-making organization or organization, the education of the officials (Input) On the other hand, the objective of the organization.
Especially in institutional pricing, in the process of acceptance of 9, is also reflected in the emotion and feeling of the acceptor, the education and moral integrity of the mind officials at the decision-making level, and the influence of the organization that is present in it.
On the input of the decision-making process, due to the lack of awareness and institutional politics, the decisions that were taken were also reached by the feedback of the organization through feedback and control. Thus, the decisions taken in the decision-making process were changed and amended.
Decision-making theory is considered as the main unit of decision-making for the decision-maker. This theory explains how a decision is taken to achieve specific goals in the context of a particular situation.
In fact, decision making is the key element in politics. Of course, the decision makers think that. That is, although the decision is not everything in politics, it is the main element.
- Who decided? (Decision-maker)
- What was the decision? (Nature of decision).
- When was the decision taken? (During decision-making)
- How was the decision taken? (Decision-making process)
- Where was the decision taken? (Place of the decision)
- In what situation was the decision taken? (Decision-making situation).
- What kind of decision? (Decision type).
- Why was the decision taken? (Reason or goal of the decision).
If you look at a little better then it will be seen that eight questions and answers to the decision 8 It is possible to formulate and analyze the theory of decision making and honesty, but in this context among the various models of decision-making theory, Simone will just explain the logical decision model.
Simon’s logical decision model:
Simon is not the first person to analyze rationality in politics or administration, but he decides. In the process, this theory has given the most practical explanation.
In general, a logical one. The man is the one who determines his actions in such a way that the greatest goal is achieved. And the amount of damages is the minimum. Therefore, the strategy or decision that can achieve maximum goals, so logical
Rational decision stages:
Only logical decisions are made to go through the right way. The income and the problem must first be fixed. There must be clear concepts about whether to decide whether to take decisions for problems or problems. Because if you do not have any idea about it, it can not be achieved.
The decision is likely to be more logical. If this option is dropped and it falls and that is the best option then the decision cannot be logical.
The choices collected at this stage have to be verified. If the election is selected as a conclusion, then its results will be evaluated. In this way, the ee option can be evaluated separately and chart based on priorities.
After analyzing the various options seriously, the option of the best option or maximum satisfaction will be chosen as a judge.
Arrangements were made to implement the decision made at this stage. This is the decision level of implementation.
Logical decision process:
The decision is a decisive act.
With a decision, directly or contrary to some other decisions and decision-makers, the diverse elements of the decision are involved. In particular, people participating in a decision have different perspectives and values, among which there is an appeal to settle.
So, in the real context, considering the decisions of all the side decisions and decisions, decisions that are taken are essentially the Appraisal-Resolving Act. Simon mentioned three models by analyzing different aspects of decision-making and making comparisons between them. Accepted the best model.
Behavior option model:
Decision-making Every participant or organization behaves in a number of ways aware or unreasonable or logical. As a result, there are qualitative differences in behavior.
In such a situation, Simon invented alternative models of behavior for decision-making. Basically, this model The option is considered equally important and how the participants of the decision 9 Indicate what it will take.
Simon says that the behavior does not start with the idea of the alternative model, but instead of considering all kinds of alternative practices and consequences, he mentions three steps to take decisions in this model: 416
- Make a list of all options;
- Collecting information about all options; And
- Selection of one by analyzing the mutual importance of the plans. But Simon did not accept this model due to some restrictions.
Limited logical model:
Classical. The kind of rationality that has been said in the economic theory is that Simon is against a limited logical model or a satisfactory model. Presented.
He thinks that it is not possible for a person to be completely logical. Because all the alternate collections are available for decision making. It is not possible to make decisions based on the alternatives received.
In addition, achieving personal satisfaction as a result of organizational goals and achievement in achieving personal goals leads to decision makers.
For this, a decision-maker chooses an option that can achieve maximum satisfaction, but it is not a big question whether it is logical or not. The matter has been described by Simon in his own language, that people do not seek all possible alternatives, but they accept what is good or satisfactory for them. Their expectations
One of the weaknesses in making logical decisions such as new complexity Somatic ethics.
Restricting the logical decision of the hand | He mentioned it as unreal and inaccessible. Because, due to the emergence of emergencies, rationality, behavior, etc. due to the emergence of the situation, the main result is ignored. An important issue has been neglected. It is very expensive and time-consuming.
There are no specific criteria to apply. It may not be logical to someone who is liable to one another. The logical decision-making model has contributed significantly to management. His model was later worked as one of the foundations of decision-making theories.
Problems for decision making:
To make every decision-maker correct and reasonable decisions are some of the complexes. The problem has to be faced. These problems are described below:
Human life can not always be planned well On the way to life. Every time there are many types of violence, conflict, and conflict. So today’s decision has been taken. It is necessary to evaluate the goodness of the future by reviewing it.
Many decisions have to be taken in the context of the existing or emerging situation against the will of man. So, very few decisions can be confirmed about the future results. But decision making. In the case of every decision-maker, it should be remembered how to achieve great success through short-term dedication
Can be possible:
Administrative experience can have very little effect on the results of the decision. Decision making is always intertwined with the future behavior, the situation is intertwined.
People make decisions in order to solve the problem or to satisfy the objective, there are many alternatives to achieving the objectives. So decision makers become the biggest, with the help of which approach will be the easiest and successful achievement.
Therefore, to get rid of this situation, the decision should first be considered, it is possible to identify some of the objectives for the purpose of reaching the objective or goal, and it is a difficult thing to identify oneself.
Many things work outside the control of the decision-maker, which has a great impact on decision-making. It is impossible to give a proper explanation of the exact description or effect of these decisions on the results of the decision.
Suddenly there is valuable information available at this time. It has been said in this theory that in very limited cases, people can play a significant role in making decisions related to decisions. But people can find out many ways about possible outcomes.
In case of decision-making, with price or inflation, from the surrounding or outside. It is very important to keep pace. That is why any administrative organization would like to be sympathetic to public debate. However, the administrative organization has a wide range of propaganda, its favorable price or People can create support.
In order to make much more administrative decisions, the greatest importance is to moral issues. In these cases, scientific reasoning or commercial interest can often not be forced to stop. To ignore. So, in such a situation, the scientific reasoning should be taken or decided
The decision to take permission of various authorities during the formation of the decision quickly creates a serious problem. However, to take the permission of different authorities, it is wise to take the administration seriously.
It appears as a safeguard. Some have to make decisions through continuous process and customary support. As a result, unnecessary delay and unnecessary harassment persist.
The United Nations published texts noted that “one of the principles of coordination in the decision making a decision is one. It plays an important role. It usually affects more than one ministry.
It is seen that in the decision-making process, the problem is increasing constantly. Yet the man. Instead of being submerged in the bottomless problem of the problem, instead of observing and insight, making decisions.
Does it. It is normal to introduce conscience-intellect in the field. In many cases, it is seen that aliquoting the decision of making a conscientious decision by resolving the past experiences of the people.
The solution to solving the problem is the solution:
Decision-making is a complex matter, however, it is possible to minimize the difficulties of the problem through proper knowledge and intelligence. With the help of knowledge and intelligence, the continuous correlation and complexity of different departments can be realized. – Mathematical and statisticians are also very likely to make decision-making problems.
Such past experience cannot solve all material problems. In this case, it is absolutely necessary to have the knowledge and wisdom of future problems. Regardless of the personal plan, creative thinking and insight of the administrator, Therefore, this problem can be solved by employing efficient and intelligent administrators too.
It is possible to resolve the decision-making process through the adoption of scientific management. One of the solutions to the decision-making or technical research problem. It plays a significant role.
Preliminary research decisions from previous scientific management. Despite having complex and variable problems in the field of acceptance, the real mathematical validity is given to the decision makers. As a result, it becomes easy to get rid of the problem.